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Authorized Assessment of State Emergency Medical Companies Insurance policies and Protocols for Naloxone Administration


Given the continued rise in opioid-related overdoses, many states have expanded entry to the opioid antagonist naloxone. We sought to supply complete information on one such technique: the authority of suppliers at completely different emergency medical providers (EMS) licensure ranges to manage naloxone.


We performed a scientific authorized evaluation of state legal guidelines and protocols governing the authority of various EMS licensure ranges to manage naloxone. We used Westlaw, state authorities web sites and scope of apply protocols. We coded related insurance policies concerning which, if any, administration routes and dosages of naloxone are permitted for every licensure degree: emergency medical responder (EMR), emergency medical technician (EMT), superior emergency medical technician (AEMT), and paramedic.


As of July 2020, all states with related legal guidelines or protocols authorize paramedics, AEMTs, and EMTs to manage naloxone. Thirty-nine states with an EMR licensure degree and statewide protocol authorize naloxone administration by EMRs, up from solely two in 2013. Permissible routes of administration have elevated throughout all EMS supplier ranges, offering superior life assist suppliers (i.e., paramedics and AEMTs) with expanded discretion; nonetheless, authorization for intravenous and intramuscular administration stays comparatively unusual for fundamental life assist (BLS) suppliers. When specified, most doses licensed ranged broadly, from 2.0 to 12.0 milligrams.


Naloxone administration authority is now broadly granted to EMS suppliers. Most states permit all licensed EMS supplier ranges to manage naloxone, a considerable enhance for EMRs and EMTs since 2013. Paramedics and AEMTs have the best authority to pick out the dosage and route of administration.

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